The requirement that motorists submit to the taking of breath samples for chemical analysis to determine their level of blood alcohol concentration stems from the New Jersey implied consent statute, N.J.S.A. 39:4-50.2. This law is closely associated with the New Jersey refusal statute, N.J.S.A. 39:4-50.4a, which authorizes punishment for those who refuse to provide breath samples when required.
Under these laws, any person who operates a motor vehicle in New Jersey is deemed to have given their consent to the taking of breath samples of his or her breath for the purpose of making chemical tests to determine the content of alcohol in their blood. These laws not only require every driver using the roadways in New Jersey to submit to a chemical breath test when requested, but also provide powerful incentives to do so. In this regard, the New Jersey refusal statute provides the following penalties:
§ 39:4-50.4a. Revocation for refusal to submit to breath test; penalties.
a. Except as provided in subsection b. of this section, the municipal court shall revoke the right to operate a motor vehicle of any operator who, after being arrested for a violation of R.S.39:4-50 or section 1 of P.L. 1992, c.189 (C.39:4-50.14), shall refuse to submit to a test provided for in section 2 of P.L.1966, c.142 (C:39:4-50.2) when requested to do so, for not less than seven months or more than one year unless the refusal was in connection with a second offense under this section, in which case the revocation period shall be for two years or unless the refusal was in connection with a third or subsequent offense under this section in which case the revocation shall be for ten years. A conviction or administrative determination of a violation of a law of a substantially similar nature in another jurisdiction, regardless of whether that jurisdiction is a signatory to the Interstate Driver License Compact pursuant to P.L.1966, c.73 (C39:5D-1, et seq.), shall constitute a prior conviction under this section.
The municipal court shall determine by a preponderance of the evidence whether the arresting officer had probable cause to believe that the person had been driving or was in actual physical control of a motor vehicle on the public highways or quasi-public areas of this State while the person was under the influence of intoxicating liquor or a narcotic, hallucinogenic, or habit-producing drug or marijuana; whether the person was placed under arrest, if appropriate, and whether he refused to submit to the test upon request of the officer; and if these elements of the violation are not established, no conviction shall issue. In addition to any other requirements provided by law, a person whose operator's license is revoked for refusing to submit to a test shall be referred to an Intoxicated Driver Resource Center established by subsection (f) of R.S.39:4-50 and shall satisfy the same requirements of the center for refusal to submit to a test as provided for in section 2 of P.L.1966, c.142 (C39:4-50.2) in connection with a first, second, third or subsequent offense under this section that must be satisfied by a person convicted of a commensurate violation of this section, or be subject to the same penalties as such a person for failure to do so. For a first offense, the revocation may be concurrent with or consecutive to any revocation imposed for a conviction under the provisions of R.S.39:4-50 arising out of the same incident. For a second or subsequent offense, the revocation shall be consecutive to any revocation imposed for a conviction under the provisions of R.S.39:4-50. In addition to issuing a revocation, except as provided in subsection b. of this section, the municipal court shall fine a person convicted under this section, a fine of not less than $ 300 or more than $ 500 for a first offense; a fine of not less than $ 500 or more than $ 1,000 for a second offense; and a fine of $ 1,000 for a third or subsequent offense. The person also shall be required to install an ignition interlock device pursuant to the provisions of P.L.1999, c.417 (C39:4-50.16, et al.).
b. For a first offense, the fine imposed upon the convicted person shall be not less than $ 600 or more than $ 1,000 and the period of license suspension shall be not less than one year or more than two years; for a second offense, a fine of not less than $ 1,000 or more than $ 2,000 and a license suspension for a period of four years; and for a third or subsequent offense, a fine of $ 2,000 and a license suspension for a period of 20 years when a violation of this section occurs while:
(1) on any school property used for school purposes which is owned by or leased to any elementary or secondary school or school board, or within 1,000 feet of such school property;
(2) driving through a school crossing as defined in R.S.39:1-1 if the municipality, by ordinance or resolution, has designated the school crossing as such; or
(3) driving through a school crossing as defined in R.S.39:1-1 knowing that juveniles are present if the municipality has not designated the school crossing as such by ordinance or resolution.
A map or true copy of a map depicting the location and boundaries of the area on or within 1,000 feet of any property used for school purposes which is owned by or leased to any elementary or secondary school or school board produced pursuant to section 1 of P.L.1987, c.101 (C.2C:35-7) may be used in a prosecution under paragraph (1) of this subsection.
It shall not be relevant to the imposition of sentence pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) of this subsection that the defendant was unaware that the prohibited conduct took place while on or within 1,000 feet of any school property or while driving through a school crossing. Nor shall it be relevant to the imposition of sentence that no juveniles were present on the school property or crossing zone at the time of the offense or that the school was not in session.